Series of articles on specific aspects

These articles take up specific aspects of VET and present key facts & figures.

also on Cedefop website

Series of articles on specific aspects

The "Thematic Perspectives" supplement the more general information on VET systems in the “VET in Europe” country reports and "Spotlights on VET" by focusing on a current European priority topic.

The most important facts and analyses on the following topics have already been summarized: 

This article presents and analyses the German results of Cedefop's European public opinion survey on vocational education and training in a comparative way. It singles out aspects relevant to the national situation as compared to the EU average. Further, it provides interpretation within the German context. The article covers the four main topics addressed in the survey based on the data provided by Cedefop and concludes with suggestions for further research in the future waves of the survey:

Chapter 1: Awareness and knowledge of VET
Chapter 2: Attractiveness of IVET
Chapter 3: Experience with upper secondary education
Chapter 4. Outcomes and effectiveness of VET 

The articles of all 28 countries on this topic can be downloaded here

The articles introduce national outreach and guidance strategies as well as practices aimed at improving the skills of inactive and unemployed people. The articles of all 30 countries on this topic can be downloaded here.

Competences are defined here as a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to the context. Key competences are those, which all individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment.

The Reference Framework sets out eight key competences: communication in the mother tongue; communication in foreign languages; mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology; digital competence; learning to learn; social and civic competences; sense of initiative and entrepreneurship; and cultural awareness and expression.

Critical thinking, creativity, initiative, problem solving, risk assessment, decision taking, and constructive management of feelings play a role in all eight key competences.

These articles inform on systematic national approaches to acquisition of key competences in upper secondary VET in the ReferNet partner countries.

VET teacher and trainer professional development is one of the strategic priorities of the Riga conclusions (2015).

There are four categories of VET teachers and trainers across the countries:

  • Teachers of general and vocational theoretical subjects in VET schools/centres;
  • Teachers of practical subjects in school workshops or simulated learning environments;
  • Apprentice tutors (mentors) in companies;
  • Practical training instructors who accompany students during work-based learning parts of school-based programmes, taking place in companies.

The reports describe how the countries support initial and continuing professional development (CDP) of teachers and trainers. They also address country-specific challenges.

Innovations and changes in the labour market require an innovative vocational training. Maintaining or improving the attractiveness of VET is a continuous challenge.

These articles describe the latest initiatives on innovation in VET in the ReferNet partner countries.

The articles describe specific features of apprenticeships and work-based learning (WBL) in the 30 ReferNet countries: the role of companies, in particular SMEs, offering training placements; programme attractiveness and career guidance; national governance, regulatory framework and social partner involvement; quality assurance; and main strengths and challenges of these programmes.

The articles provide country-based evidence on early leaving from VET, examine the size of and reasons for this phenomenon, and present preventive and remedial measures related to VET.

Each article follows common guidelines from Cedefop. In this way, “Thematic perspectives” not only provide national overviews but also allow for comparison across EU member States, Iceland and Norway.